# Internationalization and localization

With Apostrophe, the best solution for internationalization (also known as i18n, or localization) depends on whether you're interested in translating "static" text in your templates and our interface, or dynamic text created by editing on the page, creating pieces, and so on.

# Internationalization of dynamic content

For dynamic text and other media — basically anything the user can edit — you will want to use the apostrophe-workflow (opens new window) module for internationalization. The workflow module lets you create all of your site's content in a "master locale," then export that content for translation over time as changes are made. So, see that module's documentation (opens new window) for everything you need to know.

# Internationalization of static content

Internationalization of static content is a built-in feature of Apostrophe. All you need to do is take advantage of the apostrophe-i18n module, which is built on the widely used i18n (opens new window) npm module.

apostrophe-i18n makes an instance of the i18n npm module available as apos.i18n. More importantly, Apostrophe makes this available in Nunjucks templates via the usual __() helper function. So to translate static content in your templates, just write:

<h3>{{ __('Hello World') }}</h3>

Now, when you start the application, you will see files in the locales subdirectory of your project with names like en.json and these files will automatically gain new properties over time as new text strings are seen for the first time. In production, you can configure the module differently so that new strings are not added.

Again, these files are just for static text. For user-editable content, use apostrophe-workflow (opens new window).

# Configuring apostrophe-i18n

Any modules you pass to the apostrophe-i18n module are automatically passed on to i18n.

// app.js
      locales:['it', 'en']

Here is a guide to the available options:

localesDir: if specified, the locale .json files are stored here, otherwise they are stored in the locales subdirectory of the project root.

locales: array of locale codes, such as en (English, generally) or en-gb (English, localized for Great Britain).

defaultLocale: a default locale, such as defaultLocale: 'it'.

fallbacks: an object specifying fallback locales if another locale is not available.

fallbacks: { 'it': 'en'} // falls back to English

cookie: (string) set a custom cookie name to hold the current locale selection. This does not actually cause it to be stored to the cookie, it only causes the cookie to be read if it exists. You can set the cookie yourself via the usual Express APIs.

cookie: 'apos_language'

queryParameter: (string) set a query parameter to switch the locale for localization of static content. Note that this works regardless of what the URL is, for instance:

queryParameter: 'lang'


updateFiles: (boolean) if this is set false, do not write new locale information to disk even if new strings are seen for the first time. Defaults to true. In production environments you will want to set this to false.

prefix: (string) may be used to prefix the names of the json files in the locales folder. Not usually needed.


# Simple configuration

// app.js
// ...
    locales: ['it', 'en'],
    defaultLocale: 'it',
    queryParameter: 'lang',
// ...

There are many more options, which you can read about in the i18n npm module documentation (opens new window).