# How Apostrophe handles requests

This HOWTO describes how Apostrophe handles requests, and in the process, introduces many ways you can intercept that process and modify the response sent to the browser.

# Middleware

Apostrophe's response to any request begins with Express middleware (opens new window).

When an HTTP request is made, the standard middleware added by the apostrophe-express module runs first, followed by the middleware supplied via the expressMiddleware property of individual modules. Middleware is added in the order the modules are initialized. expressMiddleware can be either a single function or an array of functions.

expressMiddleware can also be an object with a before property indicating the name of another module. In this case the middleware property is run before any middleware added by that other module. The middleware property can be a single function or an array of functions. In addition, the when property may be set to beforeRequired to run the middleware before any standard ApostropheCMS middleware, including the body parser middleware. Keep in mind req.body will not exist at this point.

# Express Routes

Any module can add Express routes, either via self.apos.app.get, self.apos.app.post and friends (note that self.apos.app is the Express app object), or via self.route('get', 'verb', function(req, res) { ... }). Note that if you use self.route, the path of the module is prepended to your verb automatically. So the URL is:


Note that on the browser side, any object that extends apostrophe-context or apostrophe-module can take advantage of the self.html and self.api methods to conveniently invoke the routes of a specific module without typing these URL prefixes everywhere.

Express routes are considered after the middleware, in the order added. They are typically added in afterConstruct. The best strategy is to implement a method such as addRoutes in construct, so it can be overridden by subclasses, but invoke it in afterConstruct.

# Page requests

At the last possible moment, in the afterInit method of the apostrophe-pages module, a wildcard route (matching *) is added to Express, which triggers the serve method of the apostrophe-pagesmodule. This is how requests for pages are handled, if no other route matches the request.

The serve method of apostrophe-pages loads req.data.bestPage, which is the page matching at least a prefix component of the URL; it will always be the home page at the very least.

apostrophe-pages then invokes the pageServe method of every module that has one, via self.apos.callAll. The most important implementation is in the apostrophe-custom-pages module. Every page type has a "manager" object which is an instance of a subclass of this module. Even "ordinary" page types like home and default automatically receive a subclass of this module.

Newer code may listen for the apostrophe-pages:serve promise event instead, however it usually makes sense to just use the dispatch feature as described below.

# Ordinary page templates

By default, the pageServe method of apostrophe-custom-pages checks whether the slug of req.data.bestPage is an exact match for the request. If the page is an exact match, req.data.page is set accordingly.

The apostrophe-pages module then notes that req.template has not been set, and falls back to using pages/PAGE-TYPE.html, where PAGE-TYPE is the value of req.data.page.type.

# Dispatch: handling prefix URL matches with apostrophe-custom-pages

As mentioned, every page type is managed by a module that extends apostrophe-custom-pages. That module can call self.dispatch to add "dispatch routes" that match the URL, even if the page slug is only a prefix to that URL.

For instance, you might implement a module that displays an index if you request its URL exactly, and displays an individual document if you match the URL of the page plus the slug of the document:

// in app.js
modules: {
  'home-pages': {
   extend: 'apostrophe-custom-pages'

// in lib/modules/home-pages/index.js

module.exports = {
  afterConstruct: function(self) {
  construct: function(self, options) {
    self.addDispatchRoutes = function() {
      self.dispatch('/', self.indexPage);
      self.dispatch('/:slug', self.showPage);
    self.indexPage = function(req, callback) {
      req.template = self.renderer('index');
      return callback(null);
    self.showPage = function(req, callback) {
      return goFindSomethingBySlug(req.params.slug, function(err, doc) {
        // handle err, if no err...
        if (!doc) {
          // Let Apostrophe render the 404 page
          req.notFound = true;
        req.template = self.renderer('show', { doc: doc });
        return callback(null);

Here we are setting req.template to a function. When we do that, Apostrophe calls that function later when it is ready to render the page.

To help us do this conveniently, Apostrophe provides every module with a renderer method that returns such a function.

We just provide a template name and, optionally, data to be passed to the function.

Now we can access that data in views/show.html within our module.

"Where is the goFindSomethingBySlug function?" That depends on you! The purpose of apostrophe-custom-pages is to let you do custom work based on "the rest" of the URL. If you are just looking to display pieces, there is already a great subclass of apostrophe-custom-pages for you. Check out reusable content with pieces and apostrophe-pieces-pages.

# apostrophe-pages:beforeSend: your last chance to do async work for a page

When Apostrophe renders a page, the last thing it does is emit the apostrophe-pages:beforeSend promise event.

This is your last chance to attach information to req.data and your last chance to do anything that requires a callback.

Your handler will receive req. If it is an async function, or returns a promise, it will be awaited before the page renders.

Note that req.data.page will not always exist in an apostrophe-pages:beforeSend handler. Be sure to handle this gracefully. apostrophe-pages:beforeSend is invoked for all full HTML page responses, including the login "page," which does not correspond to an Apostrophe page.

# Widget loaders

Apostrophe can also load additional content on behalf of each type of widget that has been loaded as part of a document. Certain standard widgets make heavy use of this feature, especially apostrophe-pieces-widgets and its subclasses like apostrophe-images-widgets.

The load method of a widgets module looks like:

self.load = function(req, widgets, callback) { ... }

By default, this method takes care of any joins in the widget's schema. In apostrophe-pieces-widgets, it also fetches the pieces that were chosen by tag and so on.

To allow performance optimizations, this method takes an array of widgets, rather than just one at a time.

# Deferred widget loaders

Normally widget loaders run right after the documents containing the widgets are loaded. However, you can set defer: true as an option to your widgets module to delay this until much later, in fact after all apostrophe-pages:beforeSend handlers. This yields a performance improvement because more widgets can be loaded simultaneously. However, it means you cannot access the loaded content in your beforeSend handlers, because it has not been loaded yet.

# Template helpers: invoking synchronous JavaScript code from your template

You have one more chance to write JavaScript that is part of the rendering of a page.

Apostrophe provides many "template helpers" you've seen before, like apos.area or apos.attachments.url. Adding helpers is a good way to provide code that would be too ugly, complicated or unmaintainable written in Nunjucks.

Just remember that the code must be synchronous — it must not involve callbacks. If you need callbacks to do your work, write an apostrophe-pages:beforeSend handler, or another promise event handler.

Here's how to add a helper via your module:

// in lib/modules/my-module/index.js
module.exports = {
  alias: 'myModule',
  construct: function(self, options) {
      clap: function(s) {
        // Replace spaces with claps
        return s.replace(/ /g, '👏');
{# in any template #}
{{ apos.clap(data.page.title) }}

Again, helper functions may not be async functions and may not return promises (that is, they will not be awaited). They must be synchronous. If you need to do asynchronous work just before the page is rendered, write an apostrophe-pages:beforeSend promise event handler.

# Rendering HTML inside a helper

By default, the output of your helper will be automatically escaped, so that < becomes &lt; and so on, in order to prevent XSS attacks.

If you need to output markup, you can do that with self.apos.templates.safe. When you do so, escaping any user-entered text becomes your responsibility:

// in lib/modules/my-module/index.js
module.exports = {
  alias: 'myModule',
  construct: function(self, options) {
      header: function(s) {
        // Encapsulate in an h1 tag. Escape
        // the string as HTML!
        return self.apos.templates.safe('<h1>' + self.apos.utils.escapeHtml(s) + '</h1>');

# Accessing req inside a helper

If you need to, you can access req inside a helper function as:


This is safe because template rendering is synchronous. There is no possibility that this value will change until the page template is completely rendered.

# Rendering another template from inside a helper

Sometimes it's convenient to render another template from inside a helper. And you can. Just remember that you must use self.partial, not self.render. self.render requires a req object, while self.partial automatically uses self.apos.templates.contextReq. An example:

// inside lib/modules/my-module/index.js
  address: function(piece) {
    return self.partial('address', { piece: piece });
{# inside any template #}
{% for piece in data.pieces %}
  {{ address(piece) }}
{% endfor %}

This will render the views/address.html template of your module, passing the piece as data.piece.

# Rendering a full HTML page from a route

Thinking about rendering a full HTML page from an Express route? Most of the time, you'll want to use apostrophe-custom-pages instead, as described above. The dispatch feature gives you everything you need to respond to URLs in creative ways.

However, you can also call self.sendPage to render a full HTML page via Apostrophe:

self.apos.app.get('/special-url', function(req, res) {
  // Get some data first, then...
  return self.sendPage(req, self.renderer('special'), { ... optional data here ... });

Note that the apostrophe-pages:beforeSend promise event is emitted, and any handlers are awaited, before the template is rendered.

sendPage completes your response to the Express request. There is no need to call res.send afterwards and it will not work if you try. If you need to do anything special to the Express res object before the response is sent, do that first, accessing it via req.res.